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Terms of Reference
Study On Building Partnerships

Contract No: PCO/DFGG/10-ICS06
Purchaser: Ministry of Interior (MOI), Project Coordination Office
Project: Demand for Good Governance Project (DFGG)
Funding: IDA Grant No. H4410-KH
Dated: 5 March, 2012

Terms of Reference

I. Introduction:
DFGG Project: The Demand for Good Governance (DFGG) Project, funded by the World Bank is a landmark, four-year good governance project that began in June 2009. The project aims to foster citizen demand for good governance approaches by supporting social accountability and other innovative governance approaches.

The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) is committed to improving governance and
stimulating demand for good governance. RGC has recognized the importance of
strengthening governance in its updated National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP)
2009-13 and in the Rectangular Strategy Phase 2 (Growth Employment Equity
Efficiency) 2008. The DFGG Project aims to increase the extent and ability of citizens
and other non-state actors (NSAs) to hold the state accountable, and to make it responsive
to their needs. In turn, DFGG enhances the capacity of the state to become more
transparent, accountable and responsive to citizens. A number of key government policy
documents, such as the RS, the Governance Action Plan, and the Decentralization and
De-concentration (D&D) Strategic Framework recognize the helpful role civil society can
play in governance processes.

The DFGG Project is a response to the current RGC push for reform, and has been
approved as a US$20 million-equivalent grant from the International Development
Association (IDA). It will be implemented over a four-year period (2009-2013), under the
general coordination of the Ministry of Interior (MOI) as the Executing Agency.
Conceptually, 'Demand for good governance' (DFGG) aims to increase the extent and
ability of citizens and other non-state actors (NSAs) to hold the state accountable, and to
make it responsive to their needs. In turn, DFGG enhances the capacity of the state to
become more transparent, accountable and responsive to citizens.

The process of operationalizing this concept will be implemented through four key
activities: (i) promoting demand by disclosing, demystifying, and disseminating
information on key government programs; (ii) mediating demand by creating and
strengthening avenues for citizen feedback and addressing citizen concerns; (iii)
responding to demand by creating programs for service delivery; and (iv) promoting
regular monitoring and oversight of the public sector by independent actors.

The overall development objective of the DFGG Project aims to enhance demand for
good governance in priority reform areas by strengthening institutions, promoting
partnerships, and sharing lessons. This is to be achieved by supporting selected state
institutions (SIs) engaged in DFGG through promotion, mediation, response, or
monitoring functions; supporting non-state actors (NSAs) to develop DFGG programs in
partnership with SIs or independently; and promoting learning, awareness raising, and
capacity building on demand-side governance approaches in a broader context.

The DFGG project will therefore include the following components:
Component 1: Support to State Institutions. The project will support the strengthening
and scaling-up of programs conducted by two SIs which have committed leadership and
demonstrated initial success: (i) the Arbitration Council (under the purview of the
Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training); (ii) the One Window Service Offices and
District Ombudsman (under the MOI).
Component 2: Support to Non-State Institutions. The project will strengthen the
engagement of civil society and NSAs in DFGG activities by providing grant funding and
capacity building assistance to NSAs. The program is administered by the Asia
Component 3: Coordination and Learning. The MOI is responsible for overall project
coordination of the DFGG Project; awareness raising; and capacity building for a broader
range of institutions than merely those directly involved in project implementation. To
this end, a Project Coordination Office (PCO) has been established, which will be
responsible overseeing the daily management of the project, tracking progress, ensuring
timely reporting, and promoting adherence to best management practices on part of all
IAs. The PCO will have three small units that will comprise government and contract
staff, supported by technical advisers:

(a)Project Coordination Unit: Functions will include oversight and coordination in planning
and budgeting, financial management, internal audit, procurement and asset management,
and management information systems.
(b)Learning and Communication Unit: Functions will include guiding and overseeing the
preparation and delivery of the annual Awareness Raising and Capacity Building,
Communication and Studies Programs.
(c)Monitoring and Evaluation Unit: Assisted by the M&E research firm, the functions of
this unit will include managing and supporting the M&E function across all components,
developing forms/report formats to collect information on progress and performance,
assisting in the development and testing tools/methods for evaluation, training M&E staff
from the IAs, compiling and aggregating information from Components 1 and 2, and
reporting regularly to the RGC and the Bank.

Component 3 has been structured into two subcomponents:
Subcomponent 3A: Coordination of Project Implementation; and
Subcomponent 3B: Learning.

Justification for the Study:
The Royal Government of Cambodia is committed to increase the extent accountability,
and to make service delivery responsive to citizens needs. While partnerships between
state and non-state actors are considered essential to achieve improved government
accountability, there is little guidance on how to build partnerships. Moreover, the term
partnership continues to mean many things to many people. There is a need to develop an
engagement framework that helps a partnership develop step by step taking into account
the expectations and interests of each party to the partnership.

II. Objective:

This study will deliver a partnership development framework that allows organizations to
lay out their partnership plans in a logical manner. The framework will only cover
partnerships that involve state and non-state actors. The framework will have different
paths: historical paths (step by step), paths depending on sector or type of resulting good
(common good, private good, public good), paths depending on the incentives and costs
involved for the partners concerned, paths depending on the type of partners
(homogenous interest group, representative NGO/CSO, Government service provider,
etc.), and paths depending on the contribution and risk of each partner.
To ensure that the framework is useful for self-assessment and monitoring each step of
each path will have a number of measurable progress indicators.
The framework should address the following challenges in a coherent manner:

1. Stocktaking: What are the qualities of the partnerships that have been achieved in

a. What are the different types of partnerships that exist in Cambodia?
b. What are the characteristics for an effective partnership in Cambodia?
c. Are there minimum standards for an effective partnership in Cambodia?
d. What are the benefits these partnerships have achieved?
e. What are the investments different partners have made to make the
partnership work?

2. How can partnerships in Cambodia be fostered?

a. What are the key variables that influence the development of a

i. What are the logical historical steps?
ii. What are the type of goods that can result from a partnership?
(common good, private good, public good)
iii. How can incentives and costs involved for the partners be
iv. What types of partners exist? (Homogenous interest group,
representative NGO/CSO, Government service provider, etc.)
v. How even should the contribution and risk of each partner be?
vi. As a result of these factors, can partnerships be divided into
specific types?

b. What are the necessary contextual conditions for a partnership to succeed?
c. How can the best pathway be established on the basis of these contextual
conditions or the circumstances in which the partnership is established?
d. What other actors could and should be brought to the table to make a
partnership effective? How can such actors be identified? What are the
e. What type of interventions are possible (recommended) to foster
partnerships? At what stage of the partnership development path should
these interventions be planned?

3. What needs to be done to make partnerships sustainable within the Cambodian

a. What are the cost of a partnership?
b. What are the potential sources of income or reduce cost for partnerships?
c. What is the SWAT for each of types of partnership? Which type is more
efficient, effective, quick gains, long term benefits?
d. How can a partnership generate income and maintain a win-win for all
e. What principles can guide the development of a sustainability strategy?
f. What type of policy support is necessary to stimulate partnerships and
influence the context?
g. What would be the total budget and nation-wide time line to put in place a
policy for the fostering of partnerships?

III. Description of Work and Methodology:
The consultant will perform the following tasks. At the end of each task a peer review
will be held. The peer group will consist of representatives of TAF, PCO, and experts on
partnership development.

Task 1: Review this TOR and submit detailed timelines for the implementation of the
study. (2 person x days)
The TOR will need to be focused on a feasible outcome. Based on the experience of the
selected consultant, specific research questions might need less time. To ensure that this
TOR is in line with the specific experience of the consultant and the objective is
achievable within the available time, the consultant will review the steps of this TOR in
close consultation with the peer review group. The timeframe for each task will be fixed
and the reporting dates will be planned.

Task 2: Stocktaking. (3 person x days)
A range of partnerships between state and non-state actors will be reviewed as an
introduction to the idiosyncrasies of the Cambodian context. The partnerships will be
carefully selected from the DFGG grantees program and beyond. A solid justification for
the selection of these NGOs will be presented including the factors and indicators that
will be measured during the stocktaking.

Task 3: Draft Partnership Framework (5 person x days)
Based on the stocktaking, a draft partnership framework will be drafted and presented to
the peer review group.

Task 4: Application of the framework on developing partnerships (25 person/days)
Budding partnerships will be identified for at least 5 different pathways of the
Framework. The framework will be introduced to these partnerships and the will be
coached to apply the framework to their particular circumstances. The challenges faced
by the different partners will be identified and it will be reviewed how well the
framework is able to prepare the partners for these challenges and how well the
framework can assist with overcoming these obstacles.

Task 5: Final Partnership Framework (5 person x days)
Using the lessons learned from the application of the framework to 5 partnership
pathways, the draft partnership framework will be improved and finalized. A road map
will be proposed to the Ministry of Interior DFGG project how to implement, mainstream
and support the framework. The focus will be on making partnerships effective and

IV. Deliverables:
Preparation and Task 1: Detailed timeline and revised TOR.
Working Day 3: Presentation of the revised TOR, the detailed timeline and the
methodology for the study.

Task 2 + 3: Presentation Draft Partnership Framework.
Working Day 10: Presentation of the Draft Partnership Framework. Presentation of the
budding partnerships that will be used for the study.

Task 4 + 5: Presentation of the final Partnership Framework:
Working Day 40: Presentation of final Partnership Framework in several consultative
workshops or learning events for aspiring partners in a partnership, policy makers who
should create the conducive environment and organizations who should evaluate

V. Resources:
The consultant can negotiate and is encouraged to involve relevant MoI staff in the
execution of the study. (In line with the relevant rules and regulations about
compensation!) It is expected that their involvement will facilitate the transfer of
knowledge. The deliverables remain the sole responsibility of the consultant.

The consultant can use the good offices of the PCO to set up appointments and organize

All cost related to the study will be covered by the agreed budget except if explicitly
stated otherwise. The logistics and cost related to the meetings of the peer review group
and consultation workshops will be born by the PCO. The consultant will take the
initiative to raise any such issues with the PCO.

VI. Eligibility:
Lead Consultant Qualifications:
1. At least 10 years of experience in the field of partnership development.
2. Experience with design and implementation of action oriented research and/or
other relevant professional experience in partnership development between state
and non-state actors (minimum 5 years).
3. Relevant post graduate background.
4. Excellent verbal and written communication skills in English.
5. Understanding Cambodian situation is an advantage.

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