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Learning Theme (12)

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Implement Agency:  Project Coordination Office, Ministry of Interior

Good Governance Framework Workshop to Enhance Understanding of Element 3 – Disclosure and Access to Information

CONCEPT NOTE

Introduction

Transparency and access to information are two key contributors to Demand for Good Governance (DFGG) and Social Accountability (SA). The RGC has the following objectives with its commitment to transparency and access to information:

1. Reduce corruption, cronyism and inefficiencies in the public administration.

2. Reduce mistrust, rumor, and ignorance regarding public issues, particularly in the rural areas, where access to public information is often limited to ‘word of mouth’.

3. Avoid tension and potential conflict caused by inadequate or inaccurate information.

4. Build a stable, functioning democracy and a vibrant, informed, and tolerant citizenry.

Over the last 5 years the World Bank and Asian Development Bank have introduced “Good Governance Frameworks” as a means to manage and monitor project governance but these action plans have only been partially implemented to date by most implementing agencies. One consistent finding of the various reviews of these GGFs has been the need for more awareness building and training in the role of GGFs in project management and their use as a tool to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of project funds. This is particularly relevant in relation to the demand side or social accountability elements (disclosure, role of civil society and complaints handing mechanisms) of the GGF which have lagged due to less understanding and capacity for implementation.

In June 2010, the MEF, World Bank and ADB supported a pilot workshop to enhance understanding of project complaints handling. Over 2 days, this workshop brought together management, technical, procurement and FM staff from around 20 government implementing agencies. It set out, in relation to the complaints handling element of the GGF, the principles, best practices and mechanisms for developing a CHM, and raised the level of awareness among those who attended as to the relevance of this demand-side dimension of good governance to their project.

Given the mandate of the Demand for Good Governance (DFGG) project, and the reallocation of a substantial amount of funds to establish an enhanced Learning Program, it has been proposed that the DFGG project, in conjunction with the MEF (which is responsible for compliance with the GGF), now organize a number of similar learning sessions for Implementing Agencies on the more challenging elements of the GGF. It is proposed that the first workshop focus on Element 3: Disclosure.

An integral part of each GGF is concerned with a Project’s responsibility related to disclosure, conflict of interest, transparency, access to information and public awareness – all GGFs include a requirement for projects to disclose a range of information on a regular basis. This includes all project documentation, project management documents, procurement (bids and results) and FM documents (audits and IFRs) as well as Technical reports as they are completed. Element 3 also requires staff to disclose any conflict of interest in their undertaking their role or any activity in the project.

To date, there has been a mixed response to this element of the GGF, with varying levels of disclosure. Some IAs have established websites and put in place communications efforts which they use to regularly provide access to all project information. Other IAs have found this element more of a challenge and will benefit from learning about the principles and practices of disclosure.

Expected outcomes and outputs

The purpose of this inter-ministerial workshop is to provide a forum for learning about the principles and practices of disclosure for the Implementing Agencies of World Bank and ADB? projects. The outcome of the workshop will be better understanding and ability of Ministries and Project Offices to implement the Disclosure and Access to Information element of the GGF. Workshop participants will be trained to understand the meaning, implication and implementation of the GGF element related to disclosure, conflict of interest, transparency, access to information and public awareness, and be armed with the knowledge to improve their IAs implementation of this element.

Scope

The contents of the workshop will be further developed in consultation with the MEF, World Bank and ADB officers responsible for the implementation of the GGF.At this time it is envisaged that the workshop will focus on: (i) the principles of disclosure, (ii) the emerging practices of disclosure, and (iii) the implementation of the disclosure requirements of the GGF.

The following outline (similar to that for the CHM workshop) is proposed as a basis for discussion:

A. Introductory sessions

1. Introduction by high level officials from MEF and MOI

2. Short session providing background and function of the GGF by MEF staff

B. The context of Disclosure worldwide

3. The principles of disclosure (why disclose? How has disclosure changed development and governance)

4. International Best Practice to provide the setting for disclosure (e.g. EITI, COST, corporate policies, the World Bank Access to information policy, )

C. The Disclosure element of the GGF

5. The scope and content of the GGF element 3 on disclosure

6. Best practice in Cambodia (2-3 selected IAs present the scope and processes they have followed in the implementation of the requirements of the GGF, including their websites and project information materials, allocation of responsibilities within project teams, costs etc.)

7. Smaller working group sessions to discuss how each IA will take their implementation to the next level. (this could be by Ministry or by project)

8. Plenary wrap up

9. Closing session by MOI or MEF senior official.

D. Follow up sessions planned with individual IA teams

Target Audience

The participants in the GGF workshop on Disclosure and Access to Information will be the project directors, managers and team members responsible for GGF implementation and in particular disclosure, from all Implementing Agencies, and other interested development partners.

The total number of participants will be around 80-100. The workshop will be designed with multiple facilitators and structured small group work to ensure all participants will be able to actively participate.

Resources

The budget for this workshop is of $50,000. PCO will engage a designer/facilitator, provide all logistics support, and conduct an evaluation of the workshop. PCO will coordinate closely with the MEF, WB and ADB to ensure a collaborative effort.

Timing and Location

The training will be organized in February 2012. The exact date will be determined in consultation with MEF, WB and ADB. It is currently proposed that the workshop be conducted in 1 day (with follow ups for selected IAs) in Phnom-Penh, at a venue to be decided.

 

 

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Theme 13: Social Accountability Forum

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Theme 12: Civil Society Role in Governance

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Theme 10: Local Conflict Resolution

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I Objective:
Provide MoI with policy options to devise a legal framework on local conflict resolution (decrees, sub-decrees, and guidelines) and identify gaps in knowledge and skills with the actors who assist with conflict resolution under the Organic Law.

 

The policy options should address all current challenges faced by the Legislative Council. These challenges include but are not limited to:
1 At what administrative level (Province, District, Commune, Village) is local dispute resolution most needed?
2 What are the necessary characteristics and minimum standards for local dispute resolution systems? (fairness, reliability, availability, robustness, cost, capacity of actors, etc.)
3 What systems of local dispute resolution are currently being used?
4 What systems of local dispute resolution meet these characteristics and standards?
5 How can these systems be supported or replicated?
6 What systems of local dispute resolution can be formalized through National legislation?
7 What are the scope and the type of cases (jurisdiction) that these systems of local dispute resolution are considering? How will the legislated system interact with other alternative dispute resolution mechanisms?
8 What is the role of the Provincial and District Councils? What is their capacity to play this role? What are the risks?
9 What other actors will have a role in the systems of local dispute resolution? What is their capacity to play this role? What are the risks?
10 What are the steps and costs involved to setting up and maintaining these systems of dispute resolution? What are the costs to the users?
11 What is the relationship between the local system of dispute resolution and the formal justice system? What is the relation between the legislation for the Councils' role and other mechanisms for ADR?
12 What is the capacity gap of the councilors and other actors to ensure local disputes resolution meets minimum standards?

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Theme 8: Communication for Accountability

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Training Workshop Objectives
Communication is an effective way to convey knowledge and skills, hence is an integral part of the training sessions. The participants of the training sessions will become more aware of the communicative factors to find information and to deal with certain challenges that may arise. The participants will engage in five specific steps: inform, consult, involve, collaborate and empower citizens and other stakeholders - in their local developments to understand accountability. Communication tools for engagement on the district levels and CSOs are also provided so that the participants know how to use these tools in the long term thus providing an effective and sustainable service to citizens. It also needs the participants to understand how to engage five specific steps --

 

Outputs
Based on the objectives, the training workshop expects:
- The participants are able to understand and communicate effectively in social accountability.
- The participants are able to communicate with state and non-state actors, as well as other stakeholders in social accountability.
- The participants are aware of how to inform, consult, involve, to collaborate and to empower citizens and other stakeholders of both state and non-state actors in social accountability.
Outcomes
Sub-national officials and CSOs work in partnership with capacity to use effective communication tools--promote social accountability through increase participation of citizens to demand for their quality social services by using the five steps such as Inform, Consult, Involve, Collaborate, and Empower to ensure that final decision making in the hand of citizens.
Methodology
Participants are from both local government and CSOs, and the session will run with both explanatory and participatory activities. The lecturers/speakers and participants will share their ideas and opinions though group discussions and Q&A. As well as organizing stimulating activities such as role play, energizers, organizing press conference and media interviews. Pre and Post testing will be arranged for organizers to understand whether progress has been achieved, so that participants can communicate with the district government the concept of accountability.

Resources
As the consulting service provider for Communication Support for Good Governance Knowledge and Learning Program-, the NGO CHEMS is collaborating with PCO. CHEMS will provide experts and relevant speakers on communication for accountability during the whole training workshops. The experts and speakers will be PACT-Cambodia, API, Media, ... who have much experiences on using communication to promote social accountability.

Participants
30 participants from local state and non-state will be invited to the pilot training workshop. 10 participants of 5 districts will be District governor and District Councilor, who are responsible for dissemination information, 20 CSOs participants, who work closely to the 5 Districts, will be selected.

Curriculum Development
The training curriculum is developed based on the five steps such as Inform, Consult, Involve, Collaborate, and Empower . The workshop will be done in 2 days during the month of December, 2012. The curriculum is developed in Cambodian contextualize with speakers who specialize in communication and accountability.
The concept of accountability is rooted deep into the two-day workshop event, with the five specific steps to - Inform, Consult, Involve, Collaborate, and Empower the public. The following is the detail of the five steps:
- Inform: Aim to provide participants tools to disseminate information, identify opportunities, challenges and solutions thus providing the public the ability to make an informed choice, whilst being supported. The key message is "We keep you informed".
- Consult: After disseminating the public information. Feedback from the public is needed to understand the extent of its impact. This step can assist the workshop participants to get an idea how to acknowledge/analyze the public's feedback before making a decision. With a response, "With your feedback, we have acknowledged your concerns and we will make the necessary changes to meet your needs".
- Involve: To ensure that the public's feedbacks, concerns, and needs are understood. The next step will be to provide the participants tools on how to work with the public -- citizens, partners, CSOs, and other stakeholders -- so that the public can participate in the decision making for accountability and development. The key message: "We will work with you to ensure that your concerns, aspirations, and inputs are considered and integrated into our decision making" to the public must be used.
- Collaborate: This step will provide the participants to understand how to cooperate with partners, CSOs and other stakeholders,
including the commune/sangkat councils to identify opportunities, challenges and solutions for accountability in development. "We will follow through with your advice, innovations, suggestions and recommendations for our decision making" will be portrayed to the public.
- Empower: This step is an important time for the public to make a decision. It will provide the participants to set up a platform and hand over the decision making to the public. The key message, "We will implement what you decide" will be outreached to the public.
PCO Contribution
As the project coordinator office, PCO must help with CHEMS:
- Provide basic workshop material: Learning materials such as copied course material, pencils and paper, post-its and other stationary equipment; and teacher tools such as LCD, screen and laptops, white boards, markers, flipcharts and other technical equipment.
- Translation & Interpretation: Arrange for the translation of materials into Khmer language as well as supplying translation for the consultant's report once the workshop is completed.
- Arrange venue: The workshops requires a big conference room, large enough for 30 persons, which available for group work (9-10 persons) with Audio/Visual capacity [PowerPoint projector and screen, and interpretation booth and earphones].
- Participant logistics and administration: Identifying participants and making invitations, including participant registration/communication; arrange food and refreshment during the workshops, administer per diem and travel expenses for participants etc.
- Evaluation: Measuring results on the outcome level of the theme.

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Theme 6: Conciliation

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(I) Problem definition 

In Cambodia most disputes are still resolved outside of the conventional court system. If the dispute cannot be resolved by the parties concerned a trusted third party is often invited to mediate the dispute. These dispute resolution systems are not formalized and a wide range of mediation systems and parties are present. The mediators can be religious figures (respected monks), from the executive branch (from the village leader upto certain ministries), from the legislative branch (council members) or civilians (respected elders.) These mediators are not trained in the principles of mediation and the process is not defined. The outcome of the mediation process is not binding and there are no mechanisms to enforce the decision.

The Arbitration Council is one the mechanisms for alternative dispute resolution. One third of more than 1,100 cases registered at the AC have been successfully conciliated at the Arbitration Council. This means that the experience of the Arbitration Council is worth sharing with other conciliators people call on to assist with resolving differences and conflicts.

The Organic Law (May 2008) establishes systems for sub-national representation and decision making. Related to Local Dispute Resolution, the Organic Law stipulates that the Councils at Capital, Province, Municipality, District and Khan level, will take appropriate actions to solve local conflicts within its jurisdiction. Many questions related to the implementation of the Organic Law remain. A Legislative Council (LC) in the MoI has been charged by the Minister to come up with the draft Sub-Decree as soon as possible. The LC needs additional information before it can start drafting. A study (supported by DFGG) has been initiated and the TOR are currently under consideration by the council. By sharing its experiences related to conciliation, ACF should not pre-empt the conclusions of the committee currently drafting the sub-decree. The activities under this conciliation theme should be complimentary and integrated into the research currently ongoing to support the drafting of the sub-decree.

This concept note outlines how ACF could share its experience with conciliation and share it with the right actors at the grassroots level. The sharing sessions will be a useful tool for capacity building after the sub-decree is finalized and the selection of the target audience will be a supportive case study for the research framing policy recommendations for the sub-decree on sub-national dispute resolution.

(II) Expected outcome

Participants will learn universally-accepted principles and acquire knowledge in conciliation from the hands-on experience of the Arbitration Council. They are expected to improve their conciliation skills by managing their conciliation sessions more effectively and producing higher number of conciliated agreements.

Participants will able to:
• be familiar with universally-accepted principles in effective conciliation
• synthesize their conciliation experience with that of the Arbitration Council and other expertise collected from other sectors for further improvement of their conciliation skills
• refer cases for which a special ADR mechanism exists and understand the related dispute resolution process (including the work of the Arbitration Council)

(III) Target audience

In order not to pre-empt the results of the study on sub-national dispute resolution currently in preparation, ACF will adopt a method of selecting the participants that will contribute to the study. ACF will select five villages around Phnom-Penh and randomly select ten families. The families will be interviewed about the types of disputes they had over the last year, the way these disputes were resolved, the actors they invited to mediate and the quality of the process and its result. The result will be a set of fifty mini-case studies identifying types of disputes, mediators and capacity gaps.
The actors that were most consulted by the families interviewed will be invited for the learning event. The learning will focus on the subjects that are most common and on the skills that are most needed.

(IV) Outline of the learning event:
The learning event will focus on the key principles in conciliation/ mediation and on effective conciliation techniques (This covers such skills as managing conciliation/ mediation process, remaining impartial, dealing with resistance to conciliation/ mediation...) In addition subject specific information will be provided based on the result of the case studies. If domestic violence is a common dispute, ACF will seek the cooperation of experts and organizations working on these issues to develop subject specific advice. ACF will of course provide the expertise to develop a unit if labour disputes are a common conflict among interviewees.

(V) Methodology

It is suggested that a two-pronged approach be taken for this program: training and outreach.

The training methodology consists of presentations, case studies and Q&As. A user-satisfaction questionnaire will be distributed in order to evaluate the results and its success among trainees. There should be a maximum of 25 participants each training session.

Outreach component of the program is to be provided by consultants to disseminate to target audience the conciliation manual and other course materials. The number of audience will be discussed and agreed on between PCO, ACF and the consultants.

(VI) Location

Training is organised in some or all of the villages where interviews were conducted (depending on the number of mediation actors identified.) Outreach is nation-wide depending on where the target audience is.

(VII) Schedule

The training runs for one full day.

Dissemination of outreach materials should be made alongside with training program and beyond if necessary. The total coverage depends on the availability of funds.

(VIII) Trainers and outreach service providers

To ensure sustainability, a Cambodian NGO will be trained to deliver the training at the grassroots level. This NGO will be selected by the PCO.
The facilitators of the Cambodia NGO will be trained by members of the Arbitration Council and its Foundation and external conciliation experts. The NGOs will take the lead during the delivery of the training at the grassroots level but they will be supervised and supported by conciliation experts.
Outreach consultants as individuals or organisations will be procured for administrative and logistical arrangements for the training and development of training manual in consultation with the trainers. Their consultancy will also include implementation of outreach activities such as dissemination of the manual and other outreach materials to the target audience.

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Theme 5 & 9: Citizen Engagement

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Implementing Agency: The Asia Foundation

Date: June 2012 – January 2013
Work Shop on CE Workshop on CE

1. Introduction

The Demand for Good Governance (DFGG) Project, funded by the World Bank is a four-year good governance project that began in June 2009. The project aims to foster citizen demand for good governance approaches by supporting social accountability and other innovative governance approaches.

The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) has recognized the importance of strengthening governance in its National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) 2006-10 and in the Rectangular Strategy (RS) 2004-08. A number of key government policy documents, including the RS, the Governance Action Plan, and the National Programme For Sub-National Democratic development [NP-SNDD 2010] recognize the helpful role civil society can play in governance processes.

The DFGG Project is a response to the current RGC push for reform, and has been approved as a US$20 million-equivalent grant from the International Development Association (IDA). It will be implemented over a four-year period (2009-2013), under the general coordination of the Ministry of Interior (MOI) as the Executing Agency. Conceptually, ‘Demand for good governance’ (DFGG) aims to increase the extent and ability of citizens and other non-state actors (NSAs) to hold the state accountable, and to make it responsive to their needs. In turn, DFGG enhances the capacity of the state to become more transparent, accountable and responsive to citizens.

The overall development objective of the DFGG Project aims to enhance demand for good governance in priority reform areas by strengthening institutions, promoting partnerships, and sharing lessons. This is to be achieved by supporting selected state institutions (SIs) engaged in DFGG through promotion, mediation, response, or monitoring functions; supporting non-state actors (NSAs) to develop DFGG programs in partnership with SIs or independently; and promoting learning, awareness raising, and capacity building on demand-side governance approaches in a broader context. The DFGG project therefore includes the following components

• Component 1: Support to State Institutions;

• Component 2: Support to Non-State Institutions;

• Component 3: Coordination and Learning.

Component 3 has been structured into two subcomponents; 3A which is concerned with the coordination of project implementation and 3B which focuses on learning.

The activities described below [Citizen Engagement Themes 1 & 2], fall under 3B: Learning and aim at increasing understanding among state and non-state actors on effective approaches to engaging citizens in promoting and ensuring good governance in Cambodia. In exploring the topic using a learner centered approach, these activities will seek to facilitate learning around the nature and dynamics of citizen engagement in governance and decision–making at local level and exploring best practice cases from the experience of both local government and civil society actors at commune/sangkhat level.

These activities will also seek to draw on themes and conclusions discussed in the recent World Bank publication [2012] Voice, Choice and Decision Making – A Study of Local Governance Processes in Cambodia [VCD] and other relevant recent publications in Cambodia and internationally, in order to explore issues and draw on new learning and best practice in the field of Citizen Engagement and apply this to the Cambodian context.

The overall approach will therefore draw as much from participatory action research , knowledge management and ‘community of practice’ approaches as it does from more traditional learning and training practice. The approach therefore will consist of facilitating key state and non-state Cambodian ‘pioneer practitioners’ in:

- identifying aspects of their practice in citizen engagement [C.E] and/or social Accountability [S.Ac] with local government which they find effective

- reflecting deeply on these practices,

- exploring and considering together what learning can be derived from practices from their own and other contexts [drawing on practices, research and expertise in Cambodia and internationally],

- codifying their thinking and learning in a way which is then accessible to others

- Developing a learning curriculum based on these lessons, and

- exploring innovative and effective ways of sharing this learning with other practitioners.

While this last aspect, the sharing of learning to a wider audience is considered vital, it is important to note that the centre of gravity for this activity will be an initial group of 24-30 pioneer practitioners and the outcome will focus on their learning and improved practice on the ground.

It will also be essential that such learning and effective practice on Citizen Engagment is located within the current sub-national democratic development [SNDD] reform in Cambodia, initiated in 2010 and which the RGC describes as the ‘overarching’ governance reform. The 2010 National Programme [2NP-SNDD] envisages autonomous [under the law] District Councils, elected from below by Commune Councils, with downward accountability and their own dedicated funds and budgets. It potentially provides an unprecedented opportunity for deepening democracy through engaging citizens in local development at both commune and district levels, although the modality for that engagement will inevitably differ at each level.

Sub-national management and delivery systems (planning, financial, facilitation and other functions), while not yet fully embedded within the state, have been critical to the success of commune decentralization since 2002 - 2003 and the relative success of the Commune/Sangkhat Councils has contributed to RGC deciding to enter the second phase of decentralization reform. The NP-SNDD and its implementation plan, [the IP3 2011-13] view Citizen Engagment, and the promotion of democratic space and voice as being at the heart of democratic accountability. This accountability of Councils to citizens is to be exercised

• through periodic elections;

• through engagement of the Council with other councils and with a wide range of non-state actors including communities, civil society and the private sector;

• through legal arrangements (requiring decisions to be registered and recorded), and due process (financial record keeping, etc.);

• through access of citizens and non-state actors to information on decisions and budgets, and

• through the establishment of separate and independent mechanisms for participation, planning, redress and enforcement.

The process of Citizen Engagement and citizen engagement envisaged in the IP3 requires District/Municipal [D/M] Councils to meet regularly with non-state actors, including NGOs and CSOs, private sector groups, as well as individual citizens. Existing citizen engagement models at Commune/Sangkhat [C/S] level will also need to reviewed in terms of both their effectiveness and the extent to which they can/should be adapted to citizen engagement models envisaged for D/M level. It is likely for example that representative CSO’s will be the most feasible approach, in the main, to communicating the views of citizens to councillors and their officials at D/M level. The extent to which there is effective citizen engagement at both village and C/S level, the capacity of CSO’s and government to both facilitate that engagement, and the extent to which CSO’s can then adequately represent such views at D/M level, will all be key ‘dependent variables’ in the development of effective Citizen Engagement in local democratic governance at SN level.

The recent VCD report has provided useful some starting points for this exploration of effective practice given its conclusions regarding formal and informal mechanisms of participation at work at commune level with the formal mechanisms viewed as having limited value for a number of reasons. VCD views many of the real governance decisions and ‘business’ as taking place outside these formal settings in less inclusive, non-transparent, invited settings with the village chief playing a central role and carrying significant leverage.

Effective Citizen engagement then, tends to be characterized by ad hoc approaches to accountability, with citizens and communities adopting a vigilant ‘watching brief’ to protect their interests. At the same time local government also have to contend with these informal mechanisms in negotiating their own stance and role between both vigilant citizens and other vested business and [party] political interests, particularly where natural resources are concerned. VCD recommended the development of processes and mechanisms which would address these realities in decentralized governance and the initiative outlined here will also concern itself with examining how Citizen Engagement in local governance can be enhanced by addressing some of the issues raised in the report

Enabling and making allowances for citizens engaging in and around the IP3 is therefore viewed as a core capacity challenge for government, citizens and for CSO’s, requiring significant capacity development through awareness raising, training, mentoring and coaching if such aspirations are to become a reality. In the coming months, NCDD-S plans to work with development partners and CSO representatives [such as the CSO Working Group of Partners in Decentralisation - WGPD] to develop a framework of cooperation that focuses on strengthening citizen engagement and social accountability within the democratic development process. Such a framework, if agreed to by both government and CSOs, could then be used by government, development partners or any other funding source supporting citizen engagement in SNDD for programming purposes.

Such a jointly agreed ‘Framework’ for citizen engagement and social accountability is considered useful, given the recognition that the development of state-lead local government accountability systems in decentralization will be insufficient on their own and will also require the development of demand-side pressure from both individual citizens [and non-state actors in general] in relation to SNDD in Cambodia. It is also recognized that state and non-state approaches must be separate but synchronized, independent of each other, yet situated within a complementary framework.

2. The Plan

This Detailed Plan will firstly outline below how initiatives under Themes 5 & 9 [Citizen Engagement 1 and Citizen Engagement 2] of the DFGG Consolidated Learning/Training Plan are being merged within a single implementation plan. The merging of Themes 5 & 9 will provide a platform for learning and dialogue around number of key issues, including those raised by the VCD report [ibid.] and other key research on citizen engagement in Cambodia and internationally. Activities within this merged theme will focus on supporting reflection, re-conceptualization and clarity for practitioners from both state and non-state agencies around citizen engagement, helping to identify effective strategies and approaches based on learning from the field and also strengthen understanding and RGC/DP/CSO ownership of the ‘Citizen Engagement & Social Accountability Framework’ outlined above.

CE 1 & CE 2 will therefore aim to:

i. Support a select group of state and non-state actors in identifying key initiatives/opportunities in supporting CE in governance and social accountability in Cambodia at sub-national level.

ii. Based on the ‘Citizen Engagement & Social Accountability Framework’ and drawing on existing international and Cambodian experience, provide reflection learning and dialogue opportunities for state and non-state actors on strategies, models, approaches and tools for Citizen Engagement in the Cambodian context.

iii. Synthesize and codify this shared understanding of the strategies, models, approaches and tools for Citizen Engagement into a knowledge product.

iv. Provide Training on Effective Presentation Skills & Innovative Presentation Skills for state and non-state actors

v. Use innovative tools to Share this knowledge among a wider group of practitioners and policy makers.

vi. Develop a curriculum based on the knowledge product which can be used by both MOI and Civil Society.

3. Approach, Methodology & Sequence

CE 1 & 2 will broadly follow the Sequence outlined in fig 1. Above, and is described in more detail below

DFGG LEARNING PROGRAM CONCEPT NOTE

Workshops on Transparency and Access to Information Version 2.0

Implementing agency: DFGG Project Coordination Office and NCDD/OWSO.

Date: January 2011

Introduction

Transparency and access to information are two key contributors to Demand for Good Governance (DFGG) and Social Accountability (SA). The RGC has the following objectives with its commitment to transparency and access to information:

1. Reduce corruption, cronyism and inefficiencies in the public administration.

2. Reduce mistrust, rumor, and ignorance regarding public issues, particularly in the rural areas, where access to public information is often limited to ‘word of mouth’.

3. Avoid tension and potential conflict caused by inadequate or inaccurate information.

4. Build a stable, functioning democracy and a vibrant, informed, and tolerant citizenry.

It is the ambition of the RCG to mainstream the achievements of various departments throughout all level of the RGC in achieving a high level of transparency and open government in Cambodia. Transitioning from hierarchical control to an administration aiming for maximum disclosure will need a continuous and concerted effort over a long period of time with efforts on both the demand and supply sides2 to remove constraints and establish a new open way of working. In government, the first phase of change is often informational -- recognizing that the current isolation of departments can be a threat to long term effectiveness and efficiency of government. On the other hand citizens and representatives of Civil Society need to feel confident that they have the right to ask for information.

It is proposed that the Transparency and Access to Information theme of the DFGG Learning Program be addressed at both the national and sub-national levels and be organized/led by PCO and NCDDS respectively. This has already been agreed with the World Bank. This Concept Note sets out each of these learning events in turn.

Part A: National level workshop on Transparency and Access to Information

Expected outcomes and outputs

The DFGG Learning Program will support workshops and the national and provincial levels to create awareness that transparency and access to information are crucial for long term development effectiveness, support efficiency in service delivery and underpin stability and peace in Cambodia. The expected outcome of the proposed workshops is to lay the seeds for a shift in prevailing norms, for senior officials to better understand the benefits of and mechanisms for transparency and access to information in public service providing ministries/in the Ministry of Interior. The process will also open a dialogue with civil society about the best next steps to take to enhance transparency and access to information about local service delivery that will contribute to the process of enhancing social accountability at the local level. The theme has synergies with the Component 2 grants and the work of the NCDDS to improve the capacity of local councilors.

The primary Outputs of the workshop(s) will be participants (high level officials) that understand the concept3 of transparency and access to information and have some familiarity with the mechanisms and tools that can be adopted to improve transparency and access to information in their administrative mandate.

After the workshop, the participants will be willing to publicly4 support transparency and access to information. They will have to ability to explain in their own words why transparency and access to information is important and what the priorities are to achieve this goal.

Scope

The contents of the workshop will be very similar to the content developed for the district level workshops by NCDDS/OWSO. The national workshop will however focus more on the strategic importance of both Transparency and Access to Information to improve the awareness of senior officials and civil society that these are priorities that need continuous attention. The following range of topics are envisaged and the exact division/integration between transparency and access to information will be worked in more detail in the detailed proposal.

 

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Theme 3: Partnership

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This study will deliver a partnership development framework that allows organizations to lay out their partnership plans in a logical manner. The framework will only cover partnerships that involve state and non-state actors. The framework will have different paths: historical paths (step by step), paths depending on sector or type of resulting good (common good, private good, public good), paths depending on the incentives and costs involved for the partners concerned, paths depending on the type of partners (homogenous interest group, representative NGO/CSO, Government service provider, etc.), and paths depending on the contribution and risk of each partner.

To ensure that the framework is useful for self-assessment and monitoring each step of each path will have a number of measurable progress indicators.

The framework should address the following challenges in a coherent manner:

1. What are the necessary characteristics and minimum standards for an effective partnership in Cambodia? What are the benefits and what are the costs?

2. What are the key variables that influence the development of a partnership?

a. What are the logical historical steps?
b. What are the type of goods that can result from a partnership? (common good, private good, public good)
c. How can incentives and costs involved for the partners be identified?
d. What types of partners exist? (Homogenous interest group, representative NGO/CSO, Government service provider, etc.)
e. How even should the contribution and risk of each partner be?
f. As a result of these factors, can partnerships be divided into specific types?


3. What are the necessary contextual conditions for a partnership to succeed?


4. How can the best pathway be established on the basis of these contextual conditions or the circumstances in which the partnership is established?


5. What other actors could and should be brought to the table to make a partnership effective? How can such actors be identified? What are the risks?


6. What type of interventions are possible (recommended) to foster partnerships? At what stage of the partnership development path should these interventions be planned?


7. What type of policy support is necessary to stimulate partnerships and influence the context?


8. What is the SWAT for each of types of partnership? Which type is more efficient, effective, quick gains, long term benefits?


9. What would be the total budget and nation-wide time line to put in place a policy for the fostering of partnerships?

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